The ABCs of 529 savings plans

Key takeaways

  • Alleviate the impact on financial aid.
  • Be more flexible thanks to fewer account restrictions.
  • Control the money and choose among many investment options.

Whether you've got toddlers, teenagers, or even grandchildren, one thing is certain: Paying for college seems to get more expensive every year. Given that the average annual cost (tuition, fees, and room and board) for a 4-year, in-state public college is $24,030 for the 2023-2024 tuition year, and $53,970 per year for a 4-year private college,1 it's no surprise that college expenses can be overwhelming.

Footing college bills these days often takes every source of potential funding available to a parent, and there may be no better place to start than by opening and contributing to a 529 savings plan account. Why? The restrictions are few, and the potential benefits can be significant for the account holder, including certain tax advantages, potential minimal impact on the financial aid available to the student, and control over how and when the money is spent.

What's more, tax reform law expanded the value of 529 plans. Now you are able to spend up to $10,000 per beneficiary per year on elementary or high school tuition expenses from a 529 plan.2

Understanding the ins and outs of a 529 savings plan may help you unlock one of the biggest bangs for your education-savings buck.

A 529 savings account offers many advantages

While there are several ways to save for college—such as opening a custodial account (Uniform Gifts to Minors Act [UGMA]/Uniform Transfers to Minors Act [UTMA] account), a Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA), or even setting money aside in a taxable account (see the detailed chart below)—the potential advantages of a 529 savings plan may help you save for your child's education.

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529 savings plans are flexible, tax-advantaged accounts designed specifically for education savings.

You can take withdrawals from a 529 plan to pay for qualified education expenses at the elementary through high school levels, or for college-level and beyond.

At the college or graduate level (higher education), funds from a 529 plan can be used for tuition, fees, books, supplies, and approved study equipment including computer technology, related equipment and software, as well as internet access or related services used by the student while enrolled at an accredited postsecondary institution. Students who are enrolled at least half-time may also use funds saved in a 529 account for room and board expenses.

When used for these qualified purposes, 529 plan withdrawals are not subject to federal income tax.

Typically, a parent or grandparent opens the account and names a child or other loved one as the beneficiary. Each plan is sponsored by an individual state, often in conjunction with a financial services company that manages the plan. Although you don’t have to be a resident of a particular state to invest in its plan, you should check with your home state first for any benefits it may offer.

Here are the ABCs of 529 plan benefits to consider:

A. Alleviate the impact on financial aid

Many families worry that saving for college will hurt their chances of receiving financial aid. But, because 529 savings plan assets are considered parental assets, they are factored into federal financial aid formulas at a maximum rate of about 5.6%. This means that only up to 5.6% of the 529 assets are included in the expected family contribution (EFC) that is calculated during the federal financial aid process.3 That's far lower than the potential 20% rate that is assessed on student assets, such as assets in an UGMA/UTMA (custodial) account.

"This lower rate means that every dollar saved in a 529 college savings plan can go a long way toward helping to pay for college without significantly affecting financial aid for the student," says Tony Durkan, vice president, Head of 529 Relationship Management at Fidelity Investments.

Following the SECURE Act’s enactment in January 2020, 529 beneficiaries can pay for qualified expenses related to apprenticeships4 with tax-free distributions. Additionally, 529 beneficiaries can withdraw tax-free distributions up to $10,000 (lifetime) to repay student loans.5 The SECURE Act made both changes retroactive, so any 529 distributions for apprenticeships or student loans made after December 31, 2018, are tax-free under the new law.

College savings options: Comparing the 529 College Savings Plan, UGMA/UTMA, and Coverdell Education Savings Account

One important caveat is the difference in treatment if someone other than the parents or student—such as a grandparent—owns the 529 plan. In that case, while these 529 savings are not reported as a student asset on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), any distribution from this 529 plan is reported as income to the beneficiary. The FAFSA typically looks at income two years back, so the distribution from a grandparent 529 could result in a reduction in eligibility in the year after next. This will all change starting with the 2024-2025 school year, however, as such distributions will no longer be considered student income.

B. Be more flexible

In many ways, a 529 college savings plan has fewer restrictions than other college savings plans. These plans have no income or age restrictions and the upper limit on annual contributions is typically about $300,000 (varies by state). The Coverdell ESA limits contributions to $2,000 annually and restricts eligibility to those with adjusted gross income of $110,000 or less if single filers, and $220,000 or less if filing jointly.

Anyone can open and fund a 529 savings plan—the student, parents, grandparents, or other friends and relatives.

C. Control the money and choose among many investment options

Unlike a custodial account that eventually transfers ownership to the child, with a 529 savings plan, the account owner (not the child) calls the shots on how and when to spend the money. Not only does this oversight keep the child from spending the money on something other than college, it allows the account owner to transfer the money to another beneficiary (e.g., a family member of the original beneficiary) for any reason. For example, say the original child for whom the account was set up chooses not to go to college—or doesn't use all the money in the account—the account owner can then transfer the unused money to another named beneficiary. And starting in 2024, you'll be able to convert up to a lifetime limit of $35,000 in a 529 to a Roth IRA owned by the 529 beneficiary for at least 15 years, subject to annual Roth IRA contribution limits.6 This conversion is tax- and penalty-free. (Note: The annual contribution limit and income limits used would be the beneficiary's, not the parent's, and conversions apply only to Roth IRAs, not to traditional IRAs.) Read more in Fidelity Viewpoints: How unused 529 assets can help with retirement planning.

Each 529 savings plan offers its own range of investment options, which might include age-based strategies; conservative, moderate, and aggressive portfolios; or even a mix of funds from which you can build your own portfolio. Typically, plans allow you to change your investment options twice each calendar year or if you change beneficiaries.

"Whatever age-based portfolio you choose, the first step in the process is defining the investment objective," says Heather Zakian, Vice President, Investment Strategist, for the Fidelity-managed 529 plans. "With appropriate, age-based investments, the objective is to grow the assets while maintaining an age-appropriate balance between risk and return."

Think carefully about how you invest your savings. A strategy that's too aggressive for your time frame could put you at risk for losses that you might not have time to recoup before you need to pay for college. Being too conservative can also be a risk because your money might not grow enough to meet costs.

"This is where an age-based strategy may really help people who don't want to actively manage their investments, because it maintains a mix of assets based on when the beneficiary is expected to start college, and rolls down the risk as that time gets closer," says Durkan.

Potential tax benefits

If your 529 is used to pay for qualified education expenses, no federal income taxes are owed on the distributions, including the earnings. This alone is a significant benefit, but there are other tax benefits as well.

A 529 savings plan may offer added estate planning benefits. "Any contributions made to a 529 savings plan are considered 'completed gifts' for estate tax purposes, so they come out of your taxable estate, even though the account remains under your control," Durkan says.

Gifts to an individual above $17,000 a year (in 2023, increasing to $18,000 in 2024) typically require a form to be completed for the IRS. Any amount in excess of the annual gift tax exclusion amount must be counted toward the individual's lifetime gift-tax exclusion limits (the federal lifetime limit being $12.92 million per individual in 2023 and $13.61 million per individual in 2024). With a 529 plan, you could give $85,000 per beneficiary in a single year (in 2023, and $90,000 in 2024) and treat it as if you were giving that lump sum over a 5-year period.7 This approach can help an investor potentially make very large 529 plan contributions without eating into their lifetime gift-tax exclusion. Of course, you could make additional contributions to the plan during those same 5 years, but these contributions would count against your lifetime gift-tax exclusion limit. Consider talking with a tax advisor if you plan to make contributions exceeding the annual gift tax exclusion amount.

Dispelling 529 plan myths

Here are 4 common myths, and actual truths, about 529 college savings plans:

  1. If I don't use my 529 savings plan savings for education, I lose the money. Actually, the money is still yours, but you'll pay both a 10% penalty and ordinary income taxes on the earnings if you don't spend it on qualified higher education costs. To avoid these penalties, you could transfer the account to another beneficiary who plans to go to college. "Also, if a child gets a scholarship and you don’t need all the money for college, you pay only ordinary income taxes on the earnings portion of the money you take out to offset the scholarship, not the penalty," Durkan says. Or, as mentioned previously, starting in 2024, you could roll up to $35,000 of it over (tax- and penalty-free) into a Roth IRA, provided the account has been owned by the beneficiary for at least 15 years.6
  2. I can only invest in my own state's plan. Not true. Most plans have no state residency requirements for either the account owner or the beneficiary. Also, most plans have no restrictions on where (which state) you can go to college. It's important to note, however, that plan fees can vary based on your state of residency. Some states also offer tax advantages to their residents. Try our 529 college savings plan comparison tool to view plans by state and compare up to 4 plans at a time.
  3. The federal tax benefits associated with a 529 college savings plan will eventually disappear. The Pension Protection Act of 2006 indefinitely extended the federal tax-free qualified withdrawals on 529 college savings plan savings.
  4. Once I choose a 529 college savings plan and its underlying investments, I am locked in and cannot make changes. Actually, you are typically allowed to roll your 529 account savings over to another college savings plan. Additionally, you are allowed to change investments within your plan twice per calendar year or when you change beneficiaries.

Who may want to consider a 529?

Anyone with children or grandchildren likely going to college, whether they are babies or teenagers, may want to consider investing in a 529 savings plan account. The sooner you start, the longer you have to take advantage of the tax-deferred growth and generous contribution limits.

Investors also may want to consider setting up regular, automatic contributions to take advantage of dollar-cost averaging—a strategy that can lower the average price you pay for fund units over time and can help mitigate the risk of market volatility. Besides, many investors don't have the financial capacity to make meaningful, lump sum contributions to a 529 college savings plan.

"It cannot be stressed enough that asset allocation cannot solve poor savings behavior," Zakian says. "Regular, disciplined saving is the most important factor in growing the amount you put away for college."

Being smart about the way you save for college also means being mindful of your other financial priorities. "Fidelity believes that retirement saving should be a priority, because while you can't borrow money to pay for retirement, you can for college," Durkan says. Still, if college saving is among your financial goals, choosing to invest in a 529 savings plan may be one of the wisest decisions you can make to help pay for qualified college costs.

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Please carefully consider the plan's investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses before investing. For this and other information on any 529 college savings plan managed by Fidelity, contact Fidelity for a free Fact Kit, or view one online. Read it carefully before you invest or send money.

Views expressed are as of the date indicated, based on the information available at that time, and may change based on market or other conditions. Unless otherwise noted, the opinions provided are those of the speaker or author and not necessarily those of Fidelity Investments or its affiliates. Fidelity does not assume any duty to update any of the information.

Federal legislation enacted on December 20, 2019, made a number of changes to the rules regarding defined contribution, defined benefit and/or individual retirement plans, and 529 plans. Information herein may refer to or be based on certain rules in effect prior to this legislation and current rules may differ. As always, before making any decisions about your 529 college savings planning or withdrawals you should consult with your tax advisor. 1. Trends in College Pricing, 2023. College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. 2. Up to $10,000 per taxable year in 529 account assets per beneficiary may be used for tuition expenses in connection with enrollment at a public, private, or religious elementary or secondary educational institution. Although the assets may come from multiple 529 accounts, the $10,000 qualified withdrawal limit will be aggregated on a per beneficiary basis. The IRS has not provided guidance to date on the methodology of allocating the $10,000 annual maximum among withdrawals from different 529 accounts. 3. Starting with the 2024-2025 school year, federal student aid eligibility will be determined using the Student Aid Index (SAI) instead of the Expected Family Contribution (EFC). The SAI will utilize different methodology to calculate eligibility, and will also implement separate eligibility determination criteria for Federal Pell Grants. 4. Funds from a 529 can be applied to expenses for fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for the participation of a designated beneficiary in an apprenticeship program registered and certified with the Secretary of Labor under Section 1 of the National Apprenticeship Act. This provision is effective for such distributions made after December 31, 2018. 5. The $10,000 lifetime amount can be used to pay the principal or interest on the 529 beneficiaries' qualified education loan or a siblings' loan. 6. Pursuant to the Secure 2.0 Act of 2022 (the “Act”), 529 account owners may roll over funds from a 529 plan into a Roth IRA for the benefit of the 529 plan designated beneficiary beginning January 2024. The rollover is treated as a contribution towards the annual Roth IRA contribution limit and is subject to the Roth IRA’s current annual contribution limit. The Roth IRA must be in the same name as the 529 plan designated beneficiary. The 529 plan account must have been in existence for at least 15 years prior to initiating the rollover and any 529 contributions made within the last 5 years of the rollover initiation date are ineligible. Beneficiaries of 529 accounts would be permitted to rollover up to $35,000 over the course of their lifetime from any 529 account in their name to their Roth IRA. Further guidance from the IRS may clarify and/or change the interpretation of the Act. Please consult with a financial or tax professional regarding your specific circumstances. 7. An accelerated transfer to a 529 plan (for a given beneficiary) of $85,000 in 2023, increasing to $90,000 in 2024 (or for spouses who gift split, $170,000 combined in 2023, increasing to $180,000 in 2024), will not result in federal transfer tax or use of any portion of the applicable federal transfer tax exemption and/or credit amounts if no further annual exclusion gifts and/or generation-skipping transfers to the same beneficiary are made over the five-year period and if the transfer is reported as a series of five equal annual transfers on Form 709, United States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return. If the donor dies within the five-year period, a portion of the transferred amount will be included in the donor's estate for estate tax purposes.

The UNIQUE College Investing Plan, U.Fund College Investing Plan, DE529 Education Savings Plan, AZ529, Arizona's Education Savings Plan, and the Connecticut Higher Education Trust (CHET) 529 College Savings Plan - Direct Plan are offered by the state of New Hampshire, MEFA, the state of Delaware, and the state of Arizona with the Arizona State Treasurer's Office as the Plan Administrator and the Arizona State Board of Investment as Plan Trustee, and the Treasurer of the state of Connecticut respectively, and managed by Fidelity Investments.

If you or the designated beneficiary is not a New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Delaware, Arizona or Connecticut resident, you may want to consider, before investing, whether your state or the beneficiary's home state offers its residents a plan with alternate state tax advantages or other state benefits such as financial aid, scholarship funds and protection from creditors.

Units of the portfolios are municipal securities and may be subject to market volatility and fluctuation.

Fidelity does not provide legal or tax advice. The information herein is general and educational in nature and should not be considered legal or tax advice. Tax laws and regulations are complex and subject to change, which can materially impact investment results. Fidelity cannot guarantee that the information herein is accurate, complete, or timely. Fidelity makes no warranties with regard to such information or results obtained by its use, and disclaims any liability arising out of your use of, or any tax position taken in reliance on, such information. Consult an attorney or tax professional regarding your specific situation.

Investing involves risk, including risk of loss.

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