A guide for student loans

The more you save, the less you have to borrow. Here are tips for parents and students.

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Every parent dreams that his or her child will strive for the “brass ring”—a college education that kick-starts a career and a promising future. But these days, that dream is at risk of being tarnished by America’s student-debt crisis.

The average annual cost of a four-year in-state public college, including tuition, fees, and room and board, is $19,548 for the 2015–2016 tuition year, and $43,921 per year for a four-year private college, according to the College Board.1 No wonder 71% of the class of 2015 is graduating with college debt, according to Edvisors.com.2 Furthermore, nearly four out of 10 students would have made a different college choice and pursued different savings strategies had they understood the consequences of that burden.3

Taxpayers pay a price, too. As of late 2015, there were more than $50 billion in student loans in default and $100 billion in loans in forbearance (when students suspended making payments for up to 12 months).4

The 2016 graduate with student-loan debt will have to pay back a little more than $37,000, and this can put added strain on students’ families.5 With many recent college grads underemployed,6 it’s not surprising that 14% of Americans aged 25–34 are living with their parents, according to Gallup.7

Important changes

For those borrowing this academic year, rates on federal Stafford loans (described below) for undergraduates have fallen to 4.29% annually. Other recent changes, either as part of new legislation or because certain features were allowed to expire, include the following:

  • Rates on future subsidized and unsubsidized Stafford loans will be set at 2.05 percentage points above the yield on the 10-year Treasury note, and capped at 8.25% for undergraduate students.
  • Graduate students are no longer eligible for subsidized Stafford loans, and their rates for unsubsidized Stafford loans fell to 5.31% in 2016.
  • Graduate students and parents of dependent children taking out federal PLUS loans will face stricter standards to qualify.
  • Interest rates for parents and grad students taking out PLUS loans will fall to 6.31%, down from 6.84% last year. Rates are now capped at 10.5%.
  • In 2014, the White House expanded the eligibility criteria for the Pay as You Earn (PAYE) student loan repayment plan. For successful applicants, monthly student loan payments are capped at 10% of discretionary income.

What to do

“The key is to think ahead and figure out how much in college expenses you can afford,” says Keith Bernhardt, vice president of retirement and college products at Fidelity. (Read Viewpoints: “How much college can you really afford?”)

Once you have determined how much you can afford, focus your application process on colleges that fit your budget. Fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) form to find out what grants, scholarships, and financial aid packages each college offers based on your family’s expected contribution. Finally, compare total costs.

“If you need to borrow, look first at student federal loan options, because they generally have better rates and repayment terms,” says Bernhardt. Also, consider looking at state-sponsored loans, or visit your state’s higher education office. For a list of such institutions, visit Ed.gov.

Borrowing options

When shopping for federal student loans, keep in mind that there are two types—need based and non–need based. Federal Perkins loans and subsidized Stafford loans are need based. Federal parent PLUS loans and unsubsidized Stafford loans are not, although parent PLUS loans have eligibility restrictions. Consider each of these loan programs, as well as taking out a home equity loan or line of credit, if available (see chart at right).

In financing your student’s college education, it’s important to shop based on a variety of factors, including loan availability, interest rates, loan terms, and flexibility of payments. For example, let’s say you need to borrow $30,000. As you can see in the chart to the right, your interest rates and monthly payments can vary considerably—but so can the structure of your payments, including when you start and when the final payment is due, as well as your ability to qualify.

Federal loan options

Let's take a closer look at the options for federal student loans.

  • Perkins loans—These loans are awarded to students with the highest need, based on a combination of parental income and other factors. Perkins loans are offered to undergraduates for up to $5,500 a year, with a lifetime maximum of $27,500. Graduate students can borrow up to $8,000 a year, with a maximum of $60,000, including the loans they took out as undergrads. The interest rate is fixed at 5%, and there are no origination fees. Borrowers have up to 10 years to repay their loans, depending on the amount owed.
  • Subsidized Stafford loans—Eligibility for these loans is determined by FAFSA. Typically, they are offered at set amounts for each school year—from $3,500 for the first year up to $5,500 in the third year and beyond—with a lifetime limit of $23,000. As of July 1, 2016, the interest rate is 3.76%. Interest begins accruing upon graduation or leaving school. Standard repayment is a 10-year term, but borrowers can apply for extended repayment options of 10 to 30 years, depending on the amount owed.
  • Unsubsidized Stafford loans—To receive these loans, students must be enrolled in a qualifying degree or certificate program. Interest rates are 3.76% for undergraduate students for the 2016–2017 school year and 5.31% for graduate students, with extended repayment options of up to 30 years, though borrowers must apply and be qualified for extended repayment options such as income-based repayment. Loan limits vary from $5,000 to $12,500 a year for undergrads, with a lifetime limit of $31,000 for dependent undergrads and $57,500 for independent undergrads. Unlike subsidized Stafford loans, interest on the unsubsidized variety accrues from the time they are disbursed, rather than when the student leaves school.
  • Parent PLUS and graduate student PLUS loans—These loans carry a 6.31% fixed rate in the 2016–2017 academic year and are available to graduate students and to parents of undergrads. Unlike Stafford loans, PLUS loans require underwriting, and standards have tightened. To qualify, recipients cannot have an adverse credit history, which includes bankruptcy and unpaid collection accounts and charge-offs. You can appeal a denial by providing added documentation or an endorser. Undergraduates whose parents are denied a PLUS loan are eligible for an additional $4,000 to $5,000 in unsubsidized Stafford loans a year. The bad news is that those who are denied a PLUS loan are unlikely to qualify for private loans. Loan terms can range from 10 to 30 years.

Beyond federal loans

Keep in mind that there are other college financing options beyond federal loans.

  • Private student loans are available, but they typically carry variable interest rates as high as 12%, and they often reset each quarter. Unlike federal loans, most come with a repayment period of up to 20 years, versus 10 to 15 years for federal student loans. Private loans typically are stricter in their selection of borrowers as well. Your credit rate may cause you to pay a higher or lower interest rate, or be denied for a loan altogether. More than 90% of private student loans require a cosigner. Still, private student loans may be an option for some students, especially if they can qualify for a relatively low rate.
  • State-sponsored student loans are loans that have your state’s stamp of approval. These loans vary from state to state but in general are designed with the consumer in mind. Interest rates vary, but generally they range from 5.0% to 8.5%. Some states offer attractive features like interest rates that are fixed or the absence of tiered rates that are based on the borrower’s credit score.
  • Home equity lines of credit or home equity loans are another popular option. Home equity lines of credit carry a variable interest rate recently averaging about 4.74%; the rate on home equity loans is fixed, averaging 4.92% as of July 2016, according to Bankrate.com. With the equity line, you have the flexibility to borrow money when you need it, and avoid paying interest on money you don’t need yet. Home equity loans are generally given by a lump-sum amount in the beginning, and you will have to estimate all your future expenses at that time. However, with both a home equity loan and a home equity line of credit, you use your home as collateral, and risk losing it if you violate the repayment terms. Either way, the advantage over education loans is that you can deduct the interest on home equity debt up to $100,000.
Consider your options: Highlights of different types of student loans
Type of loan Who's eligible Interest rate
Loan limits
When accrual begins Years to pay
Perkins Loans Only the most needy college students 5% Undergrads: $5,500/$27,500
Grad students: $8,000/$60,000
When student graduates or leaves school Up to 10
Stafford Loans
Determined by FAFSA 3.76%* $3,500–$5,500/$23,000 When student graduates or leaves school 10–30
Stafford Loans
Everyone who files a FAFSA Undergrads: 3.67%*
Grad students: 5.31%*
Undergrads: $5,000–$12,500/$31,000–$57,500
Grad students: $20,500/$138,500
Begins when student accepts the loan, but payments can be deferred until after the student graduates or leaves school 10–30
Parent PLUS
and Graduate
Student PLUS Loans
Those who meet the eligibility requirements and do not have an adverse credit history 6.31% Undergrads and graduate students: the cost of the college’s annual tuition and room and board, minus financial aid Begins when the loan is disbursed, but payments can be deferred until after the student graduates or leaves school 15–30
Each state has its own eligibility requirements. Some states require that a student attend college in that state. Varies by state, but generally from 5.0%–8.5% Varies by state, creditworthiness, and choice of borrower Either immediately upon acceptance of loan terms or after the student graduates or leaves school 10–20
Private Student
Depends on creditworthiness Varies, but generally from 2.5%–12.0% Depends on each institution, creditworthiness, and choice of borrower Either immediately upon acceptance of loan terms or after the student graduates or leaves school 10–30
Home Equity
Depends on creditworthiness and equity in home Average 4.92% fixed rate* Depends on each institution, creditworthiness, and choice of borrower Immediately 10–30
Home Equity
Line of Credit
Depends on creditworthiness and equity in home Average 4.74% variable rate* Depends on each institution, creditworthiness, and choice of borrower Immediately 10–30
Source: Edvisors.com, Bankrate.com, FinAid, and Fidelity Investments. *As of 7/20/2016.

Tips for students

For students already enrolled in college or graduating with outstanding debt, here are some tips to understanding, managing, and paying off loans:

  1. Understand the terms and conditions of your loans and be sure to meet your monthly payments.
  2. Take advantage of private and government websites and resources; explore alternatives designed to lower payments, and tuition management assistance programs.
  3. Check whether you qualify for a deduction of your student loan interest when doing your taxes.
  4. Visit the National Student Loan Data System to keep track of your loans and financial services provider.
  5. Opt to repay your student loans via automatic deductions from your bank account, which can help avoid penalties. Repaying student loans automatically not only avoids late fees but may also yield a slight interest rate reduction.
  6. Pay off the highest interest rate loans first to save money in the long term.

Tips for parents

For parents, it’s critical to make sure that helping their child pay the college tab won’t shortchange their own home equity, retirement savings, or other short- and long-term financial goals. “Parents must do a trade-off analysis and remember they can borrow for college but not for retirement,” Bernhardt suggests.

Considering the mounting burden of student-loan debt, most financial experts concur that the best way to reduce the burden is to launch a college savings strategy for your child as early as possible.

The good news is that there are tax-savvy accounts that can help you save. Among them:

  • 529 college savings plans, offered by states in conjunction with financial institutions, allow you to save after-tax dollars, but that money can grow tax deferred and be withdrawn federal income tax free to meet qualified higher education expenses such as tuition, books, room and board, and fees at eligible institutions nationwide. There is no annual contribution limit for 529 college savings plans except for the overall total contribution maximum, which varies by plan but is typically around $300,000. However, to avoid paying federal gift and transfer taxes, as an individual, you can contribute up to $70,000 per beneficiary by utilizing five-year gift-tax averaging; or $140,000 for a married couple.8 (For a more detailed analysis, read Viewpoints: “The ABC’s of 529 college savings plans.”)
  • Custodial accounts, either Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA) accounts or Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA) accounts, offer more investment choices but weigh more heavily on financial aid. They offer limited tax advantages, and the money saved becomes the child’s at a certain age, regardless of whether he or she goes to college.
  • Coverdell education savings accounts (ESAs) offer tax-free growth, can be used for college but also for primary education, and are designated for a child’s education expenses, but annual contributions are limited to $2,000 per beneficiary. Still, if you’re contributing only $2,000 or less per year, these savings vehicles can be attractive, particularly because they offer a broad range of investment options. (Note: Fidelity does not offer Coverdell ESAs.)

In the end, the more you save, the less you have to borrow. You don’t want your newly minted college grad trapped in a debt bubble that could limit his or her financial future.

Learn more

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Please carefully consider the plan’s investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses before investing. For this and other information on any 529 college savings plan managed by Fidelity, contact Fidelity for a free Fact Kit, or view one online. Read it carefully before you invest or send money.
The UNIQUE College Investing Plan, U.Fund College Investing Plan, Delaware College Investment Plan, and Fidelity Arizona College Savings Plan are offered by the state of New Hampshire, MEFA, the state of Delaware, and the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education, respectively, and managed by Fidelity Investments. If you or the designated beneficiary is not a New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Delaware, or Arizona resident, you may want to consider, before investing, whether your state or the designated beneficiary’s home state offers its residents a plan with alternate state tax advantages or other benefits.
Units of the portfolios are municipal securities and may be subject to market volatility and fluctuation.
The tax and estate-planning information contained herein is general in nature, is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. Fidelity does not provide legal or tax advice. Fidelity cannot guarantee that such information is accurate, complete, or timely. Laws of a particular state or laws that may be applicable to a particular situation may have an impact on the applicability, accuracy, or completeness of such information. Federal and state laws and regulations are complex and are subject to change. Changes in such laws and regulations may have a material impact on pre- and/or after-tax investment results. Fidelity makes no warranties with regard to such information or results obtained by its use. Fidelity disclaims any liability arising out of your use of, or any tax position taken in reliance on, such information. Always consult an attorney or tax professional regarding your specific legal or tax situation.
3. Fidelity College Savings Indicator, Summer 2014.
4. U.S. Department of Education; Federal Student Aid; https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/about/data-center/student/portfolio.
6. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, "Are Recent College Graduates Finding Good Jobs?"
8. In order for an accelerated transfer to a 529 plan (for a given beneficiary) of $70,000 (or $140,000 combined for spouses who gift split) to result in no federal transfer tax and no use of any portion of the applicable federal transfer tax exemption and/or credit amounts, no further annual exclusion gifts and/or generation-skipping transfers to the same beneficiary may be made over the five-year period, and the transfer must be reported as a series of five equal annual transfers on Form 709, United States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return. If the donor dies within the five-year period, a portion of the transferred amount will be included in the donor's estate for estate tax purposes.
The views and opinions expressed herein are not necessarily the opinions or recommendations of Fidelity Investments. This material is provided for informational purposes only and should not be used or construed as a recommendation for any security.
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