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Investing based on your principles

Are you interested in investing based on your personal principles? If so, you might want to consider sustainable investing. Integrating sustainable investing components—environmental, social, and governance (ESG)—into your research might enhance your ability to align your investments with your principles.

It has become easier than ever to accomplish this goal. The growth in sustainable investing vehicles has been substantial, providing an increasing number of opportunities to potentially find investments that match your investing goals.

Here is a closer look at what sustainable investing entails, along with a few opportunities to consider.

What is sustainable investing?

Sustainable investing is known by many names. Among them: socially responsible, ethical, impact, and principles-based investing. Fidelity defines sustainable investing as an investing approach that integrates ESG factors into research and decision-making. Evaluating ESG factors that are material to a given industry and company can help assess an investment’s sustainability.

Generally, sustainable investing can mean selecting companies that limit the negative impact their operations and products have on the environment; focus on more equitable relationships among and between their customers, employees, suppliers, and communities they operate in; and exhibit accountable and transparent governance with diverse and independent boards; offer compensation incentives that align with shareholders; and sound capital allocation policies.

While such an investing approach isn't new, its definition and objectives have evolved over the years—from avoiding certain investments (so-called "sin stocks," such as tobacco, firearms, alcohol, and casinos) to a more holistic approach, based on ESG factors. Those factors are:

A note on ESG differences

You should be aware that there are inconsistencies among providers of ESG research and providers of ESG investment products. Consequently, there can be challenges in identifying investments that conform with your preferences/principles.

  • Environmental impact—An environmentally friendly investing objective can include companies that produce renewable and sustainable energy, enhance energy efficiency, source raw materials using eco-safe methods, use little or no hazardous chemicals in their production process, limit waste, and prioritize recycling. Examining environmental factors can reveal which companies are responsive to consumer demand for sustainable practices. There are many examples of these types of investments.
  • Social issues—Positive social investing objectives focus on companies that consider the impact upon all stakeholders, such as seeking gender equality, providing healthy working conditions and lifestyles, addressing wealth inequality, and showing a commitment to charitable endeavors, among other factors. A focus on social themes can identify businesses that demonstrate a commitment to a diverse and inclusive workplace.
  • Governance quality—Strong corporate governance systems entail having policies and principles that address potential conflicts of interest among stakeholders (e.g., managers implementing policies that benefit themselves, rather than shareholders), and including an independent board and audit committee that seek to protect shareholders over management. Attention to governance can uncover which companies are committed to diverse board composition and shareholder-friendly policies.

Something to consider when evaluating opportunities based on ESG criteria is what characteristics actually qualify this type of investment. Simply because a company states their goal is to reduce carbon emissions, for example, does not mean the company will definitely follow through with reducing their carbon footprint.

Aligning your principles and objectives

The primary reason to consider an ESG investing strategy is an attempt to match your personal beliefs with your investments.

Also, a company that focuses on ESG factors can signal operational efficiency and lower costs, reduced environmental liability, opportunities for low-carbon revenue sources, effective management of human capital, reduced risks related to product/service safety, opportunities for an expanded customer base, financial and operational decisions that best serve shareholders, reduced risk from reputational damage or weak financial controls, and well-managed operations and costs in the face of regulatory changes.

Of course, there is variability in average costs within categories as well as the range of averages across categories (as well as variability in return, both within and across categories), as measured by expense ratios, highlighting why it’s important to evaluate each investment opportunity on its own merit and, perhaps more importantly, to determine whether an investment is right for you. Always be sure to consider your investment objectives, risk constraints, time horizon, liquidity needs, and tax situation. As with any investment, costs (and performance) should always be an important consideration.

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Looking deeper into ESG

An important caveat when assessing these types of investments is that there is not as much historical performance data for ESG funds compared with, say, the broad US market as well as other developed markets. For this reason, the research and conclusions drawn from sustainable investing may not be as profound. Additionally, the classification of a sustainable investment strategy has shifted over time (think “sin stocks” versus ESG factors), making measurement and comparisons somewhat complicated. Not only has the classification evolved over time, it is defined and evaluated in varying ways by different companies.

Moreover, just because an investment is defined as ESG, that doesn’t mean it meets your definition or requirements. If you are looking for a particular type of sustainable investing strategy, you may need to search for investments that match the factors that are important to you. For example, if you are primarily interested in green energy investments, and would like to invest in an ETF or mutual fund, consider the objectives of the fund and evaluate the holdings of the fund to see if the components actually meet your definition of an ESG investment. You may also want to assess the fund relative to an alternative energy benchmark index. Some of the most popular benchmarks in this space are the S&P Global Clean Energy Index (SPGTCLEN), NASDAQ Clean Edge Green Energy Index (CELS), or World Alternative Energy Index (WAEXPDC).

How to find sustainable investing ideas

You can search for sustainable investments on using our stock, ETF, and mutual fund screeners, based on environmental, social, and governance characteristics.1 When considering these types of investments, you may want to evaluate their potential impact on your portfolio's diversification, due to the application of ESG filtering criteria and the narrowness of certain ESG fund mandates.

A large and growing number of mutual funds and ETFs with a socially responsible investing mandate are now available—in addition to individual stocks of companies that would qualify as an ESG investing candidate. For example, some of the largest socially responsible ETFs and mutual funds by net assets are:2

ETFs Mutual funds
iShares ESG Aware MSCI USA ETF () Parnassus Core Equity Fund ()
iShares ESG Aware MSCI EM ETF () Vanguard FTSE Social Index Fund ()
iShares Global Clean Energy ETF () Parnassus Mid-Cap Fund ()
Invesco Solar ETF () TIAA-CREF Social Choice Fund (TLWCX)
iShares ESG Aware MSCI EAFE ETF () TIAA-CREF Core Impact Bond ()
Source:, Morningstar, as of February 28, 2022.

You can see the holdings of each of these funds by going to the fund snapshot page and selecting "View holdings" to help assess whether the investments match your sustainable investing criteria. This might be accomplished by further researching each individual fund holding to help determine if they match your sustainable investing objectives.

To find ESG ETFs, go to the ETF/ETP Screener, select "Start a screen" (login required) and choose "Socially Responsible" to search by the 3 ESG criteria. After you run a screen, your next step should be to determine if it aligns with your objectives and risk tolerance.

Fidelity ESG offerings

Fidelity's ESG funds include Fidelity US Sustainability Index Fund (), Fidelity International Sustainability Index Fund (), Fidelity Sustainability Bond Index Fund (), Fidelity Environment and Alternative Energy Fund (), Fidelity Water Sustainability Fund (), and the Fidelity Women's Leadership Fund ().

If you are interested in ESG investing, but aren't sure how to get started, you may want to consider a mutual fund or ETF. Even if you are knowledgeable, a mutual fund or ETF may be a good way to gain diversified ESG exposure, given the research intensity and inherent risks of ESG investing. Either way, with a plethora of choices, it’s increasingly possible for you to invest based on your principles.

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More to explore

ESG-focused ETFs

Search for ETFs with strategies that may meet your sustainable investing goals, such as strong employee relations, efficient use of natural resources, or gender diversity.

ESG-focused stocks

Search for stocks based on MCSI ESG criteria, such as accounting and governance risk score, environmental score, social score, governance score, or overall ESG rating.
Before investing in any mutual fund or exchange-traded fund, you should consider its investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses. Contact Fidelity for a prospectus, an offering circular, or, if available, a summary prospectus containing this information. Read it carefully. While environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) factors are available to incorporate into our investment process across all Fidelity strategy offerings, ESG assessments represent one of many pieces of research available to the portfolio managers and the degree to which it impacts a strategy’s holdings may vary strategy by strategy based on the portfolio manager's discretion. Investing based on ESG factors may cause a strategy to forgo certain investment opportunities available to strategies that do not use such criteria. Because of the subjective nature of sustainable investing, there can be no guarantee that ESG criteria used by Fidelity will reflect the beliefs or values of any particular client. The Fidelity ETF Screener is a research tool provided to help self-directed investors evaluate these types of securities. The criteria and inputs entered are at the sole discretion of the user, and all screens or strategies with preselected criteria (including expert ones) are solely for the convenience of the user. Expert Screeners are provided by independent companies not affiliated with Fidelity. Information supplied or obtained from these Screeners is for informational purposes only and should not be considered investment advice or guidance, an offer of or a solicitation of an offer to buy or sell securities, or a recommendation or endorsement by Fidelity of any security or investment strategy. Fidelity does not endorse or adopt any particular investment strategy or approach to screening or evaluating stocks, preferred securities, exchange-traded products, or closed-end funds. Fidelity makes no guarantees that information supplied is accurate, complete, or timely, and does not provide any warranties regarding results obtained from its use. Determine which securities are right for you based on your investment objectives, risk tolerance, financial situation, and other individual factors, and reevaluate them on a periodic basis.

ETFs are subject to market fluctuation and the risks of their underlying investments. ETFs are subject to management fees and other expenses.

Investing involves risk, including risk of loss.

1. Sustainability for individual securities uses MSCI data, and Morningstar data for mutual funds and ETFs/ETPs. 2. Source:, as of February 28, 2022.

All indexes are unmanaged, and performance of the indexes includes reinvestment of dividends and interest income, unless otherwise noted. Indexes are not illustrative of any particular investment, and it is not possible to invest directly in an index.

Stock markets are volatile and can fluctuate significantly in response to company, industry, political, regulatory, market, or economic developments. Investing in stock involves risks, including the loss of principal.

NASDAQ® Clean Edge® Green Energy Index is a market capitalization-weighted index that tracks the performance of companies that manufacture, distribute, or install clean-energy technologies. Expense ratio is the total annual fund operating expense ratio from the fund's most recent prospectus.

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