At least a 20% correction in the stock market.
Cycle Hit Rate
Calculates the frequency of a sector outperforming the broader equity market over each business cycle phase since 1962.
Annual dividends per share divided by share price.
Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)
A non-GAAP measure often used to compare profitability between companies and industries, because it eliminates the effects of financing and accounting decisions.
Earnings per Share Growth
Measures the growth in reported earnings per share over the specified past time period.
Earnings per share divided by share price. It is the inverse of the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio.
Free Cash Flow (FCF)
The amount of cash a company has remaining after expenses, debt service, capital expenditures, and dividends. High free cash flow typically suggests stronger company value.
Free cash flow per share divided by share price. A high FCF yield often represents a good investment opportunity, because investors would be paying a reasonable price for healthy cash earnings.
Full-Phase Average Performance
Calculates the (geometric) average performance of a sector in a particular phase of the business cycle and subtracts the performance of the broader equity market.
Median Monthly Difference
Calculates the difference in the monthly performance of a sector compared with the broader equity market, and then takes the midpoint of those observations.
Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio
The ratio of a company’s share price to reported accumulated profits and capital.
Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio
The ratio of a company's current share price to its reported earnings. A forward P/E ratio typically uses an average of analysts’ published earnings estimates for the next 12 mos.
The ratio of a company’s current share price to reported sales.
The comparison of a security’s performance relative to a benchmark, typically a market index.
Return on Equity
The amount, expressed as a percentage, earned on a company’s common stock investment for a given period.
A mathematical analysis that estimates the relative contribution of various sources of volatility.
The business cycle as used herein reflects fluctuation of activity in the U.S. economy and is based on Fidelity’s analysis of historical trends.
Sector rankings are based on equally weighting the following four fundamental factors: EBITDA growth, earnings growth, return on equity (ROE), and free-cash-flow margin. However, we evaluate the Financials sector only on earnings growth and ROE because of differences in its business model and accounting standards.
Compares the strength of a sector versus the S&P 500 Index over a six-month period, with a one-month reversal on the latest month; identifying relative strength patterns can be a useful indicator for short-term sector performance.
Valuation metrics for each sector are relative to the S&P 500 Index. Ratios compute the current relative valuation divided by the 10-year historical average relative valuation, eliminating the top 5% and bottom 5% values to reduce the effect of potential outliers. Sectors are then ranked by their weighted average ratios, weighted as follows: P/E: 35%; P/B: 20%; P/S: 20%; free-cash-flow yield: 20%; dividend yield: 5%. However, the Financials sector is weighted as follows: P/E: 59%; P/B: 33%; dividend yield: 8%.
Fidelity Management & Research Company, Equity Division
The Equity Division within Fidelity Asset Management consists of 11 portfolio groups, as well as Select and Advisor Focus sector portfolios. Each group is responsible for portfolio management supported by in-depth fundamental research.
SelectCo is a division within Fidelity's Asset Management organization and is focused exclusively on expanding the company's 30-year heritage of sector investing to help meet the evolving needs of investors and advisers for innovative sector-specific tools, resources, and products.
Unless otherwise disclosed to you, any investment or management recommendation in this document is not meant to be impartial investment advice or advice in a fiduciary capacity, is intended to be educational and is not tailored to the investment needs of any specific individual. Fidelity and its representatives have a financial interest in any investment alternatives or transactions described in this document. Fidelity receives compensation from Fidelity funds and products, certain third-party funds and products, and certain investment services. The compensation that is received, either directly or indirectly, by Fidelity may vary based on such funds, products and services, which can create a conflict of interest for Fidelity and its representatives. Fiduciaries are solely responsible for exercising independent judgment in evaluating any transaction(s) and are assumed to be capable of evaluating investment risks independently, both in general and with regard to particular transactions and investment strategies.
Information presented herein is for discussion and illustrative purposes only and is not a recommendation or an offer or solicitation to buy or sell any securities. Views expressed are as of the date indicated, based on the information available at that time, and may change based on market and other conditions. Unless otherwise noted, the opinions provided are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Fidelity Investments or its affiliates. Fidelity does not assume any duty to update any of the information.
References to specific investment themes are for illustrative purposes only and should not be construed as recommendations or investment advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s own goals, time horizon, and tolerance for risk.
This piece may contain assumptions that are “forward-looking statements,” which are based on certain assumptions of future events. Actual events are difficult to predict and may differ from those assumed. There can be no assurance that forward-looking statements will materialize or that actual returns or results will not be materially different from those described here.
Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
Investing involves risk, including risk of loss.
All indices are unmanaged. You cannot invest directly in an index. Index or benchmark performance presented in this document does not reflect the deduction of advisory fees, transaction charges, and other expenses, which would reduce performance.
Stock markets are volatile and can decline significantly in response to adverse issuer, political, regulatory, market, or economic developments.
Because of its narrow focus, sector investing tends to be more volatile than investments that diversify across many sectors and companies. Sector investing is also subject to the additional risks associated with its particular industry.
Business Cycle Definition
The typical Business Cycle depicts the general pattern of economic cycles throughout history, though each cycle is different. In general, the typical business cycle demonstrates the following:
Early-cycle: Economy bottoms and picks up steam until it exits recession, then begins the recovery as activity accelerates. Inflationary pressures are typically low, monetary policy is accommodative, and the yield curve is steep.
Mid-cycle: Economy exits recovery and enters into expansion, characterized by broader and more self-sustaining economic momentum but a more moderate pace of growth. Inflationary pressures typically begin to rise, monetary policy becomes tighter, and the yield curve experiences some flattening.
Late-cycle: Economic expansion matures, inflationary pressures continue to rise, and the yield curve may eventually become flat or inverted. Eventually, the economy contracts and enters recession, with monetary policy shifting from tightening to easing.
Please note that there is no uniformity of time among phases, nor is the chronological progression always in this order. For example, business cycles have varied between one and 10 years in the U.S., and there have been examples when the economy has skipped a phase or retraced an earlier one.
The Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Corporate High Yield Bond Index is a market value-weighted index that covers the universe of dollar-denominated, fixed-rate, non-investment grade debt.
The FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs Index is a market capitalization–weighted index that is designed to measure the performance of tax–qualified Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) that are listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the NYSE MKT LLC, or the NASDAQ National Market List with more than 50% of total assets in qualifying real estate assets secured by real property. Mortgage REITs are excluded.
The S&P 500® Index is a market capitalization–weighted index of 500 common stocks chosen for market size, liquidity, and industry group representation to represent U.S. equity performance. S&P 500 is a registered service mark of Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC. Sectors and industries are defined by the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS).
The S&P 500 sector indices include the standard GICS sectors that make up the S&P 500 Index. The market capitalization of all S&P 500 sector indices together composes the market capitalization of the parent S&P 500 Index; each member of the S&P 500 Index is assigned to one (and only one) sector.
Sectors are defined as follows: Consumer Discretionary: companies that provide goods and services that people want but don't necessarily need, such as televisions, cars, and sporting goods; these businesses tend to be the most sensitive to economic cycles. Consumer Staples: companies that provide goods and services that people use on a daily basis, like food, household products, and personal-care products; these businesses tend to be less sensitive to economic cycles. Energy: companies whose businesses are dominated by either of the following activities: the construction or provision of oil rigs, drilling equipment, or other energy-related services and equipment, including seismic data collection; or the exploration, production, marketing, refining, and/or transportation of oil and gas products, coal, and consumable fuels. Financials: companies involved in activities such as banking, consumer finance, investment banking and brokerage, asset management, and insurance and investments. Health Care: companies in two main industry groups: health care equipment suppliers and manufacturers, and providers of health care services; and companies involved in the research, development, production, and marketing of pharmaceuticals and biotechnology products. Industrials: companies whose businesses manufacture and distribute capital goods, provide commercial services and supplies, or provide transportation services. Materials: companies that are engaged in a wide range of commodity-related manufacturing. Real Estate: companies in two main industry groups—real estate investment trusts (REITs), and real estate management & development companies. Technology: companies in technology software and services and technology hardware and equipment. Telecommunication Services: companies that provide communications services primarily through fixed-line, cellular, wireless, high bandwidth, and/or fiber-optic cable networks. Utilities: companies considered to be electric, gas, or water utilities, or companies that operate as independent producers and/or distributors of power.
Third-party marks are the property of their respective owners; all other marks are the property of FMR LLC.
Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC, Member NYSE, SIPC, 900 Salem Street, Smithfield, RI 02917
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