- Evaluate your progress toward any specific goals.
- Check your mix of stocks, bonds, and short-term investments.
- Evaluate the performance of individual investments against benchmarks.
"Am I investing the right way for my situation?" It's a source of anxiety or confusion for many investors. How do you know?
Consider our simple 3-step checkup plan to help find out.
1. Focus on your goals
Why are you investing? You may have some long-term goals, like retirement, and some shorter-term goals, like buying a new car or a house. The time frames around your goals, along with your tolerance for risk and your financial situation, will help determine your investment strategy.
Let's start with saving for college. Say you envision sending your newborn to an in-state public school and plan to cover half of the expenses with your savings (with the remaining 50% to be covered by a combination of scholarships, grants, and financial aid). According to the College Cost Calculator from the College Board, the total cost would be about $222,466, for which you will pay $111,233 over the course of 4 years.
Using Fidelity's college savings calculator, we estimate you would need to save about $200 per month over 18 years.1 Saving less per month would require a longer period of time over which to save—or a higher rate of return, which you can't always count on.
Here's an example—if you earn $100,000 per year as a 67-year-old, 10✕ your salary means you would aim to save $1,000,000 by retirement at age 67. To learn more about Fidelity's retirement guidelines, read Viewpoints on Fidelity.com: Retirement roadmap
Fidelity's Planning & Guidance Center can help you see if your savings are on track for your goals and help you come up with a strategy if they're not.
2. Check your asset mix
When you started investing, you probably set up a diversified mix of investments that targeted a certain level of risk based on your goals, time horizon, and tolerance for volatility. A diversified portfolio is made up of different types of investments with varying patterns of risk and return—like stocks, bonds, and short-term investments. If one part of your investment is declining, another part may be doing well, or at least not going down as much. The goal of diversification is not necessarily to maximize performance, but it may help limit the losses for the level of risk in your portfolio if the markets decline.
Ensuring that your mix of investments continues to reflect your chosen level of risk is an important part of the review process. Market moves can shift that allocation out of alignment with your goals. As a result, your investment mix may become more or less risky than you intended. Your stock and bond investments may become over- or underweighted relative to your other investments, which can shift the level of risk and return you may be trying to target.
Check your asset mix at least once per year to help keep it on track with your objectives. If your goals change significantly—or, after big moves in the market—review your investments, and if your investment mix has drifted significantly from your target asset class weights (for example, by 10% or more), consider rebalancing your portfolio to your initial target mix.
A good rule for rebalancing is to direct more of your contributions into the investments that have lagged behind and reduce purchases of investments that have appreciated. Consider bringing your portfolio back to the target asset mix at least annually—the habit of doing so will allow you to maintain your portfolio in a disciplined way.
Read Viewpoints on Fidelity.com: Give your portfolio a checkup
3. Benchmark individual investments
You should look at your investments to ensure that they are still an essential part of your plan. Evaluate the performance of stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or ETFs by comparing them to appropriate benchmarks. The easiest way to find the appropriate benchmark index is on the stock, bond, fund, or ETF research page on Fidelity.com.
Ask yourself these questions:
Why did you buy this investment?
Does it still fit into your strategy? What role is it supposed to play in your overall plan? Different types of investments play different roles in your portfolio and may provide varying patterns of risk and return. For instance, does it give you more exposure to domestic bonds or international bonds, or does it target a particular style of equity investing, like value or growth?
What is impacting the performance of your investment?
How does it compare to others like it? For instance, what is going on in the world, in the stock market, or in the industry, that affects returns? Keep in mind that different types of investments do well at different times.
Consider performance and risk
Look at how your fund has performed relative to the benchmark index—as well as similar funds. Recent performance shouldn't be your only metric—consider annual performance in the context of fees as well. Risk is another important dimension—it's important to evaluate the historical risk (variability of returns) associated with a fund's historical return. Risk-adjusted returns can be a useful metric when comparing funds with different levels of risk and/or return. You can find that information on the research page for each mutual fund under the section called "Fund risk and return."
Read Viewpoints on Fidelity.com: How to start investing
Get help if needed
Don't get discouraged if it seems like a lot of work—target date funds, target risk funds, and managed accounts are options to consider if you don't have the skill, will, and time to manage your investments.
Target date funds
Target date funds gradually become more conservative as they approach the investment goal date.
Target risk funds
Target risk funds offer a set level of risk (mostly stock market risk) and the fund managers work to maintain that level of risk over time.
These could be digital options like robo advisors that invest and rebalance for you. Or at the other end of the spectrum, managed accounts could include comprehensive financial planning with a dedicated financial advisor. Note that managed account services usually require a fee.
Getting help with your investments could keep your portfolio in good shape to achieve your financial goals. Of course, the do-it-yourself approach works too—as long as you have the inclination, skill, and time to invest appropriately for your goals and time frame.
Whether you choose your own investments or pay someone to help you, saving and investing for your goals takes perseverance and consistency. Try reviewing your savings in the Planning & Guidance Center. Seeing your hard work paying off through the years as you get closer to achieving your objectives can keep you motivated and on track.
Lastly, the underlying effective rates of return are assumed to be between 1% and 3%. As time horizons get closer to the start of college, the return assumptions are reduced to illustrate a generic target date rolldown strategy appropriate for a college savings investor.
This information is intended to be educational and is not tailored to the investment needs of any specific investor.
Investing involves risk, including risk of loss.
Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
IMPORTANT: The projections or other information generated by the Planning & Guidance Center's Retirement Analysis regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results. Your results may vary with each use and over time.
Stock markets are volatile and can fluctuate significantly in response to company, industry, political, regulatory, market, or economic developments. Investing in stock involves risks, including the loss of principal.
In general, the bond market is volatile, and fixed income securities carry interest rate risk. (As interest rates rise, bond prices usually fall, and vice versa. This effect is usually more pronounced for longer-term securities.) Fixed income securities also carry inflation risk, liquidity risk, call risk, and credit and default risks for both issuers and counterparties. Unlike individual bonds, most bond funds do not have a maturity date, so holding them until maturity to avoid losses caused by price volatility is not possible. Any fixed income security sold or redeemed prior to maturity may be subject to loss.
Diversification and asset allocation do not ensure a profit or guarantee against loss.
Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC, Member NYSE, SIPC, 900 Salem Street, Smithfield, RI 02917